PUGET SOUND TO POINT BARROW ALONG ALASKA'S COAST (Historic Information)
Leaving Puget Sound, the ship, after touching at Victoria, British Columbia, proceeds through the Gulf of Georgia, and traverses for 800 miles before reaching Alaskan waters a stretch of inland waterways separated from the Pacific Ocean by numerous islands, and which are broken only by the wide waters of Queen Charlotte and Milbank Sounds and Dixon's entrance.
The scenery of this route both in British Columbia and Alaska has never yet been faithfully portrayed. Islands, mountains, inlets, and glaciers appear on every hand, and the eye is delighted at every turn by a constantly recurring succession of pleasurable surprises in the form of natural scenery sublimely grand. This is especially true of the passage through the Alexander Archipelago, with its thousand islands, mountain-crowned, and clothed to the snow-capped peaks, with a livery of emerald green. The islands are never out of sight,-and the steamer is rarely ever more than three miles from land on either side during the whole distance.
To the right is the mainland of British Columbia; to the left the island which takes its name from the intrepid explorer Vancouver, who sailed into the unknown waters of the Pacific and charted the coast from California to Cook Inlet, Alaska.
Nowhere is the scene the same, barely even similar, though everywhere it is composed of mountains rising abruptly from the sea. Islands innumerable guard the waters of the inside channel from the storms of the Pacific.
Vancouver Island and the mainland behind Vancouver city teem with history. Here the Honorable Company of Merchant Adventurers trading into Hudson Bay had their scattered posts into which the factors collected the skins from the Indians whom they had brought under their sway.
At Alert Bay there are totem poles side by side with modern industries. Salmon canneries are in full swing in the summer, packing the fish, which goes across the whole world in ever-increasing quantities, from the host of canneries which lie along the whole of the coast to the north.
From Alert Bay the passage soon leads past Bella Bella and on Charlotte Sound, and the deep, land-locked harbor of Prince Rupert, the entrance to which is from the south—the exit to the north. Here in Dixon's Entrance is the channel by which ocean steamers may approach the mainland at this point of the coast. Once Dixon's Entrance is left behind there is no more open sea, in traversing Southeastern Alaska.
Almost immediately after leaving Prince Rupert, the ship enters into Alaskan waters.
Homesteads in Matanuska Valley, Alaska, About 40 Miles from Anchorage
Metlakatla. The first place of importance the traveler reaches after entering Alaska is Metlakatla, an Indian mission settlement, on Annette Island, 60 miles from the southern boundary, population 574 (1920 census). A regularly constituted village government is maintained; the public buildings compare favorably with the best in Alaska. At this place we get the first view of the Alaskan Indian; quite a different race from the red man as we know him.
He is smaller in stature and lighter in color and has none of that look as of rocks and mountain—austere and relentless — that our Indians have. He also takes more kindly to our ways and customs, and to our various manual industries. In reaching the land of the Indian we reach the land of the raven also. In the village they are everywhere and seem to act as the scavengers, like the buzzards in the South.
From Metlakatla the steamer proceeds to Ketchikan, the most southerly port in Alaska, the distributing center of an extensive mining region, rich in copper, marble, and other minerals. It is served by all steamers plying on the inside route.
Hydaburg is on the southwest coast of Prince of Wales Island, 85 miles due west of Ketchikan. It has a population of 346 (1920 census), practically all whites. The town consists of about 90 buildings, including two stores, cannery, saw and shingle mills.
There are schools, hospital, and a Presbyterian mission. Copper and gold mining is carried on at Copper Mountain. All kinds of wild game and fish are plentiful in this region.
Ketchikan is an incorporated town of about 5,400 (1921) with considerable business interests. It is the first port of call for steamers doing business with southeastern Alaska, which are required to make here entry of cargo and passengers. It has stores, six large canneries in the town, twenty-five canneries in the district, outfitting establishments, two cold-storage plants, saw mills, and is the commercial distributing point for regions contiguous. There are educational and religious institutions, water works, electric light plants, telephone service.
Craig. This town of 212 persons (1920 census) is in the same location and a little north of Hydaburg. It is reached by boats from Ketchikan and Wrangell. The population is white and mixed.
It is the business center of the west coast of Prince of Wales Island, and adjacent to one of the best fishing grounds of Southeastern Alaska. At Craig are located a U. S. Government wireless station, customs office, and Forest Rangers station. It has large and well equipped stores, bakery, machine shop, steam laundry, etc.
Top: Lane School, Nenana, Alaska Bottom: Some of the Pupils
Wrangell is the next point reached, population, 821 (1920 census); named for Baron Wrangell who was governor of Alaska 1832-36; located on the island of the same name and not far from the Stikine River. It was once the chief trading station of the Hudson Bay Company.
Wrangell commands the entire trade of the Stikine River, which is navigable for about 150 miles. The region is rich in fisheries, timber, minerals, and furs. There is here also a native village, second in population to none of Southeastern Alaska, Sitka alone excepted.
Of paramount interest to visitors are the totem-poles which are here to be seen in perhaps greater number and variety than any other of the native settlements.
From Wrangell to Juneau, through Sumner Straits, Wrangell Narrows, Frederick Sound, Stevens Passage, and Gastineau Channel the distance is about 180 miles, the course, after leaving Wrangell Narrows, being along the coast of the mainland.
John Muir: "Through southeastern Alaska, the broad lofty mountains along the coast are usually laden with ice. The upper branches of nearly all the canyons are occupied by glaciers, which increase in size gradually and descend lower until the region which is highest and snowiest, between 560 and 61°, is reached, where a considerable number discharge fleets of icebergs into the sea.
This is the region of greatest glacial abundance on the west, side of the continent. It is about 500 miles long, 100 broad, and probably includes nine-tenths of the ice on the coast."
Petersburg, at the north end of Wrangell Narrows, is a thriving community of 879 (1920 census). In the adjacent territory are many mineral properties under development. Attractions for fishermen and hunters are strong. Game animals, birds and fish in abundance.
Chief industries: Salmon, halibut, shrimp and crab fishing, and canning.
There are several up-to-date stores, two or three restaurants that can be recommended for tourists, and a good hotel.
In the immediate vicinity are black bear, brown bear, deer, wolf, mountain goat, some moose and caribou, as well as an abundance of ducks, geese, grouse, eagles, ptarmigan, etc., as also rainbow and other trout; shrimps, crabs, and clams in unbelievable quantities. The climate conditions are very agreeable and compare favorably in every respect with those of Oregon and Washington.
It is warmer than any place in the world of similar latitude. The summer with its 18 hours of sunshine per 24 and its daylight nights is, however, far above comparison with that of the Pacific coast states. The scenery surrounding is alpine in its beauty.
Among the numerous trips which may be made from Petersburg: A few minutes row is Petersburg Creek, which abounds in various kinds of game and trout all the way to its source. Petersburg Lake is 6 miles back; Brown's Cove, Point Agassiz, and Portage Cove, from 5 to 15 miles distant. Everywhere are lakes and creeks teeming with fish.
Kake. Population, 387 (1920 census), mostly natives. This town, which is on Kupraenof Island, 60 miles from Petersburg, contains about 50 buildings—three stores, Presbyterian mission, and lumber mill. Its industries are salmon canning and making hair seal moccasins. Near the town are a garden vegetable farm and a blue fox ranch. In this region wild game and fish are abundant.
Tenakee is on Chichagof Island, 85 miles from Juneau, 75 miles from Sitka. Population, 174 (1920 census), includes about 30 natives. There are two salmon canneries in this vicinity.
The Le Conte Glacier, 15 miles distant, is the most southerly tidal glacier in the world. It can be seen at a distance of 20 miles and is easily accessible by steamer or launch. This glacier moves every 24 hours, with recurrent falls of blocks and avalanches of ice accompanied by thundering roars and reverberations and tidal wave effects; indeed, this glacier is classed as one of the great natural wonders of the world.
Alaska-Juneau Mine and Mill, Gold Creek
Warm Springs on Baranoff Island, about seven hours distant by motor boat, contain the highest known qualities of sulphur and are noted for their curative properties for rheumatism, kidney, nervous, and blood disorders. There are good accommodations for sojourners.
On this latter trip may be visited one of the largest whaling stations in Alaska, as well as large canneries and salting stations.
Other interesting side-trips are by motor boats to the numerous Indian villages and fox farms where the blue and silver are bred for the fur.
Juneau, the capital of Alaska, is located at the head of navigation on Gastineau Channel, 900 miles north of Seattle, and is the metropolis as well as the capital of Alaska. Population, 3,058 (1920 census). It is in the very center of the greatest gold quartz mining districts of the world, many millions of dollars in gold having been added to the wealth of the nation from Juneau's mines.
Except for the narrow confines of Gastineau Channel, Juneau is wholly surrounded by towering mountains that for physical grandeur and majestic beauty are unsurpassed in America and unexcelled in the world.
Many of her mountain peaks have never been crested by animal life save that of eagle's wing. 'Tis here that raging torrents race riotously down the almost perpendicular declivities in the good old summer time — awesome, magnificent, and unbelievably grand.
Mendenhall Glacier can be reached in an hour over a good road, being but sixteen miles distant from the city. Within a three-minute walk after a delightful auto ride of an hour after leaving Juneau, sightseers may cool their hands on the blue ice of old Mendenhall.
Autos are always in waiting on the arrival of steamers during the tourist season. The trip to the Glacier is made along the shores of a long but shallow continuation of Gastineau Channel, the splendid highway being fringed with improved farms, large dairies and hay ranches that cause visitors for the time being to forget that they are in Alaska.
Taku Glacier, located thirty-five miles from Juneau, accessible by either steamer or small boat, is another of Nature's marvels. Its solid front of blue ice towers about 250 feet above the waters of Taku Inlet and glistens like diamonds in a diadem.
An irresistible force from behind keeps the mountain of ice constantly moving toward the water by which its lower portions are undermined and melted away, causing the over-hanging walls to give way with cannon-like roars, and drop into the water beneath—a sight once witnessed never forgotten. As scenic assets, the glaciers near Juneau are among her most valuable.
Gold Creek Canyon. Ten minutes' walk or five minutes by auto will enable the tourist to reach Gold Creek Canyon after landing at any of the Juneau docks.
The canyon is a narrow defile between towering snow-capped mountains and is similar in beauty and grandeur to the world-famed Grand Canyon of the Colorado. Gold Creek Canyon is skirted by board walks and a well-kept auto road. For four miles up this panoramic vista one delight is succeeded by another, the highway ending at Perseverance Mine, where gold mining operations are carried on in no less than thirteen levels and where all ore mined is loaded into cars by the gravity system, a powerfully equipped electric railroad terminating in the thirteenth level from which the ore is hauled to the Alaska-Gastineau Mill, seven miles distant from the mine. A trip to and through the Perseverance Mine is never forgotten by the "chechacko" (tenderfoot).
The Alaska-Gastineau Mill, and that of the Alaska-Juneau, the latter being located only a few hundred yards from the Juneau docks, are credited with being the most modern mining mills in the world.
They are both operated by electricity and each has a capacity for milling 12,000 tons of ore every twenty-four hours. They must be visited to be understood and appreciated
Between the Alaska-Gastineau and Alaska-Juneau mills, but on the opposite side of the channel, on Douglas Island, is located the world-famed Treadwell group of mines, from which about $65,000,000 have been taken since they were opened up thirty-five years ago.
Three of the four mines of the Treadwell group were flooded three years ago, but the fourth, the Ready Bullion, is still operating, and is one of the heavy producers of Alaska.
Douglas and Treadwell are reached by an hourly ferry service from Juneau.
If tourists are unable to arrange to stop over for a period at Juneau, they should insist and see to it that the steamers on which they travel arrive at Juneau and remain for several hours in daylight. The capital city will furnish the attractions.
Juneau supports a daily newspaper, banks, assay office, and cable connection with Seattle.
$1,500,000 Steel Bridge, C R. & N. W. Ry. at Miles Glacier
Auto Service and Rates. To Mendenhall Glacier and return, time about 2 1/2 hours; minimum rate, $10; four passengers allowed; all over four, $2.50 each.
To Perseverance Mine and return, time about two hours; minimum rate, $10; four passengers allowed; all over four, $2 each.
The Juneau Commercial Association gives assurance that the above rates are reasonable.
The Territorial Historical Museum, embracing the greatest and most nearly complete collection of Eskimo curios now in existence with the possible exception of that of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D.C., is now open to the public at the territorial capital, Juneau. The collection consists of upward of 20,000 different articles and represents ten years' work by Daniel S. Neuman, who spent a decade on the coasts of Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The museum is in charge of Rev. Fr. A. P. Kashevaroff, a priest of the Greek Catholic Church and himself a native of Alaska, having been born in Sitka while Alaska was yet Russian territory. The museum is beyond doubt the most interesting of all the many beauties and wonders Alaska offers her many visitors.
Mount Juneau, Mount Roberts, and Mount Jumbo, all rising about 3,500 feet directly from sea level, are all easy of access and can be easily climbed, although guides should be taken.
Turner Lake, claimed to be not surpassed by Lake Louise, Taku Glacier, Norris Glacier, Taku Inlet, Tracy Arm, and Grindstone and Rhinestone creeks can all be reached by small boats within one to two or four hours.
Comfortable gasolene vessels can be chartered for from $15 to $25 per day to make these trips. Salmon Creek Dam, one of the largest reservoir dams on the continent, can be reached by a pleasant walk from the mouth of Salmon Creek, the latter being reached by automobile.
There are hot springs at Tenakee and Sitka. Trips can also be made from Juneau to the Alaska-Juneau Mine, which is practically within the city limits; to the Alaska-Gastineau Mines and to the Alaska Treadwell Company Mines on Douglas Island, connected by ferry with Juneau.
The average temperature in July is 57.8°. The mean rainfall precipitation in June, the average driest month, is 3.92 inches.
Deer, goats, bear, wolves, and sheep can all be obtained within a short distance of Juneau. There is also fishing in practically all the streams, and trolling and other deep sea fishing can be engaged in in all the inlets and channels. Grouse, ptarmigan, ducks, and geese are also in abundance in this vicinity.
Alaska Silver Fox in Captivity
There are four distinct areas within easy access to Juneau which are particularly available for farming purposes, to wit: Mendenhall Valley, Taku Glacier Valley, Eagle River Valley, and Strawberry Point. Stock, dairy and strawberry raising so far have proved to be most suitable to engage in. The shores of countless smaller bays and valleys will also in time be taken up for these purposes; as on nearly every one the chief investment used by the homesteader is labor, as he can make his living off the land, and there is always an abundance of game and fish to be obtained.
During twenty-seven years of weather reports the figures show that at no time during eleven of those years did the temperature rise above 80° F., and in fourteen years of that time it did not go below zero, and in seven years, it did not go below 7o above zero.
The longest day is 18 hours, 20 minutes at Juneau, and all through June, July, and August the days are exceedingly long. It is no uncommon thing to have a baseball game up to as late as 10.00 p.m.
Prospective investors would do well to look into the possibilities of the paper and pulp, fisheries, cold storage, fish byproducts, mines, and timber industries.
There are no such things as cyclones or dust storms, and even heavy thunder storms do not occur here. There are neither any snakes nor poisonous spiders.
Leaving Juneau the steamer rounds the southerly end of Douglas Island and heads on through Saginaw passage into Lynn Canal, finally arriving at Skagway, at the head of the canal, the limit of salt water navigation in that direction.
Thane. Here is located the Perseverance mine, referred to herein under heading "Juneau." Population, 421 (1920 census).
Hoonah is on Chichagof Island. The population, 402 (1920 census), is 90 per cent natives. There are several stores, a cannery near-by, water and lighting system, U. S. Government school, Presbyterian and Greek churches, and saw mill. Three farms within five miles raise vegetables, chicken, cattle, rabbits, etc. As in all parts of this region there are game and fish in plenty.
Haines. Population, 314 (1920 census), is a few miles south of Skagway on the east shore of a long narrow peninsula lying between Chilkoot and Chilkat inlets. It is the outlet of the Porcupine mining district in Alaska and of the Rainy Hollow mining district in British Columbia, to each of which a wagon road extends.
Rye and Oats, Hot Springs, Alaska
Fort William H. Seward, headquarters of the army in Alaska, adjoins the town of Haines.
About two miles distant from Haines is Pyramid Harbor where there is a large salmon cannery. Tourists, on ships which call at Haines, visit this interesting activity while waiting for the steamer to discharge and take on cargo.
Within a radius of fifty miles from Haines there are several native villages, the whole containing in the aggregate a larger native population than is embraced within the same limits elsewhere in Alaska.
Skagway, located at the head of Lynn Canal, although small in point of population, 494 (1920 census), is one of the most important towns in Alaska. It is the only gateway to the .great interior, affording access by rail and connecting river steamers to all of the principal mining centers in the interior of Alaska and the Yukon Territory contiguous to the Yukon 'River and its tributaries. Skagway can also boast of having the first railroad built in Alaska—the White Pass & Yukon Route.
No town in Alaska, with the exception of Dyea — now deserted —is so closely and intimately associated with the great gold rush to the Klondike in 1897 and 1898. For here came men by the thousands—most of them to begin their toilsome climb over the Summit of White Pass; thence to brave the dangers of Miles Canyon, White Horse Rapids, Five Finger Rapids, and Rink Rapids. Few towns have ever been any wilder than Skagway was in the days of '97 and '98—but that has now passed into history. Today Skagway is as law-abiding a town as one will find anywhere. And, too, it is a modern little town. It has an electric light and telephone system as well as water works. There are churches, schools, fraternal orders, a daily newspaper, good stores, including one of the largest, if not the largest, curio shops in Alaska and very good tourist hotels.
The U. S. Government cable connects Skagway with Seattle as well as with other telegraph stations in Alaska.
The White Pass & Yukon Route maintains a telegraph service between Skagway and White Horse where connection is made with the Canadian Government telegraph line.
The several thousand tourists who visit Skagway every summer have spread its fame as a city of flowers far and wide, for nowhere in Alaska are there more beautiful flower gardens than here.
There are many points of interest in the vicinity: Mt. Dewey, Lower and Upper Dewey Lake, A. B. Mountain, Reid's Falls, Reid's Monument, Denver Glacier, old deserted Dyea, and he who likes "hiking" or mountain climbing will find many interesting trails.
The White Pass & Yukon Route operates a daily, except Sunday, train service between Skagway, Carcross and White Horse, connecting, during the season of navigation (from about June 1 to October 10), with the steamers of the White Pass & Yukon Route at Carcross for the beautiful Atlin Lake country and at White Horse for Dawson in the Klondike.
The tourists visiting Alaska will find the trip to Dawson and Athn of exceptional interest and scenic grandeur. The route followed is that taken by the gold seekers in '97 and '98.
From the parlor observation car, or the deck of the steamer, one may view the ever-changing panorama of wild, rugged mountains, wondrously beautiful lakes, rushing mountain torrents, cascades, water falls and glaciers, and at the same time enjoy the comforts of modern travel conveniences. Detailed description of the trip by rail to White Horse and the trip to Atlin, Dawson, etc., will be found on page 143 and the following pages.
Pursuing the journey westward, the ship heads back through Icy Strait and into Chatham Strait, a long channel, averaging 6 miles wide, between the Admirality, Chichagof, and Baranof Islands, landing finally at Killisnoo, population, 256 (1920 census). During this sail the ship passes not far from the native village of Hoonah on the north of Chichagof Island, population, 402 (1920 census), and Hunter Bay and the native village of Angoon, population, 114 (1920 census), both the latter on Admiralty Island.
Killisnoo is located about midway between Juneau and Sitka on the most direct route, and adjacent to waters literally alive with cod, halibut, and herring. Killisnoo's industry is in oil works, with an annual capacity of 250,000 gallons pressed at a temperature of 120, and 1,500 tons of guano, prepared from the refuse of the herring from which the oil is extracted.
Map of Alaska Showing Railroads, Navigable Rivers and Steamship Lines
Top—A Corner of a Skagway, Alaska, Garden Bottom—Some Skagway Nasturtiums That Grew over 25 Feet in a Season
To make 200,000 gallons of oil involves a catch of not less than 60,000 barrels of herring.
Directly opposite Killisnoo is the entrance to Peril Strait through which the ship next threads her way in intricate channels and seething rapids to Sitka, a distance of about 80 miles.
Sitka, population, 1,175 (1920 census), occupies a site at the head of Sitka Sound on the west side of Baranof Island, 980 miles from Seattle. It enjoys the advantage of a safe and commodious harbor formed by numerous small wooded islands which afford ample protection against the prevailing westerly and southerly winds. It was settled in 1802 by the Russians.
Charles Keeler, writing of this region, says: "If the eagle seems to belong to these solitudes of the Northwest, another bird, which we found equally abundant as far north as Juneau and Sitka, seemed singularly out of place. Indeed, even after reading that the tiny rufous humming bird journeyed so far into the northern wilds, it was with almost a shock of surprise that we saw the dainty creature contentedly buzzing about the salmonberries, and appearing as unconcerned and happy as if his fine wings had not carried him some thousands of miles from his winter quarters in Southern California or Mexico. I cannot imagine a more wonderful instance of bird migration than this—one of the smallest known birds, no larger than a fair sized moth, yet with strength, endurance, and intelligence to travel up and down the greater part of the North American coast line, pressing close upon the train of early spring, awaiting only the blooming of the wild currant in California, and the salmonberry farther north to venture upon his perilous way.
All hail to thee, little pioneer.....You answered the beckoning little blossoms and followed them .... even upon the threshold of the ice-king's domain."
The walk to Indian River, a beautiful stream, over a road which winds its way around the shore under an almost continuous bower of evergreens and around the connecting trail to the falls, will impart to the visitor a lasting impression of the beauty and grandeur of an Alaskan forest and the limpidity of Alaska's flowing fountains.
Sitka is the seat of a mission and industrial school maintained by the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions.
Interesting things for tourists are the old Greco-Russian Cathedral, with its chime of bells and rare valuable paintings, many of them embellished with precious stones; and the draperies of beaten gold and silver, which were presented to the church many years ago by Russian nobility as marks of their devotion to the faith, and regard for the men who had consecrated their lives to the promulgation of their faith among a heathen people, and Sitka National Park with its Totem Poles, the native village, the two canneries and the cold storage plant, the fishing fleet operating from this port, and the Presbyterian school for natives.
Potato Patch, Hot Springs, Alaska
At this place are located the headquarters of the Agriculture Department for Alaska, the Pioneers' Home, and the Government's magnetic observatory. There is a Greek church built more than fifty years ago which contains valuable paintings and other treasures, also the Sheldon-Jackson Museum, which has many interesting curios.
The game animals in this section include bear, deer, ducks, geese, swans, several species of grouse and ptarmigan, all of which are plentiful. Fishing is open and ideal all the year round. King Salmon trolling with rod and line furnishes more excitement and thrills per minute than any such sport in the world; trout, including rainbow, cut-throat, mountain, and salmon are plentiful in the many creeks and lakes near Sitka, and the fishing is best during June to September, inclusive. Halibut may be caught the year round.
Looking landward from the ship, to the right, there are to be seen Mounts Fairweather, Crillon, and La Perouse; and to the left, majestic awe-inspiring St. Elias rises to a height of nearly 19,000 feet, their snow and ice-clad peaks crowned with halos showing all the colors of the rainbow, and the whole constituting a scene at once sublimely grand and beautiful. The elevations of these mountains above sea level vary from 13,500 to 19,000 feet. Lying between the base of this range and the seashoreto the southeast of Yakutat is a strip of comparatively level land, perhaps 20 miles in width, which is heavily timbered.
Mulgrave Harbor is to the right of the entrance to the bay, and on the north side is the native village, population, 165 (1920 census). These inhabitants are not unlike those of Sitka, speak the same language, and live in houses similarly constructed. A few frame houses with a store and postoffice make up the village.
Mt. St. Elias from Yakutat Bay
The scenery in the neighborhood of Yakutat Bay, and indeed all along the coast as far west as Cook Inlet, is most impressive, quite equal in beauty and grandeur to that of the inland passages in Southeastern Alaska.
In Yakutat Bay and its extension known as Disenchantment Bay are the Lucia, Turner, and Hubbard glaciers; and in a water extension which runs back and parallel to the two bays and known as Russell Fiord are Nunatak and Hidden glaciers. West of Yakutat a few miles is the largest of the Alaska glaciers, Malaspina, covering 1,500 square miles.
Malaspina Glacier has a front of 50 miles on the sea and runs back 30 miles to the St. Elias Range from which it is fed. It is a vast plain of ice with lakes and rivers, and with hills of rocks and gravel that have trees and alders growing upon them. The discharge of roily water from beneath it is so great that it colors the sea over an area equal to its own.
In this vicinity may be witnessed the process of salmon canning and the operation of the wonderful "iron chink."
Fish caught are put in this establishment just as they come out of the water. They leave this establishment in cases of one-pound cans, 60 cans per minute, never having been touched by hand except when inspected.
Prince William Sound is a deep indentation of the mainland, the entrance to which is like the delta of a great river, because of the many islands which block the passages. The sound, which is likewise crowded with islands, and covers an area of something over 2,500 miles, was first explored by Captain Cook during the last voyage in 1778. It is surrounded on the north and- east by the mountains of the Coast Range and on the west by the Kenai Peninsula. The many indentations of the coast line on the north, east, and west protected by the outlying islands in the south, form natural harbors for the largest seagoing vessels; harbors that are ice-free throughout the year.
Port Wells, the extreme northeastern arm of Prince William Sound, using the words of John Burroughs, "is another great ice chest—glaciers to right, glaciers to left, glaciers in front— volley and thunder. The mountains are ribbed with them and the head of the bay walled with them. Five can be seen at once; they are separated by intervals of a few miles. The two large ones at the head of College Fiord are the Harvard and Yale; the cascading glaciers on the west side are Radcliffe, Smith, Bryn Mawr, Vassar, and Wellesley, and the main glacier on the east side is Amherst.
Harriman Glacier is located at the end of Harriman Fiord, discovered and named by the Harriman Alaskan Expedition in 1899.
Cordova. Situated at the head of Orca Inlet, an arm of Orca Bay, in the eastern shore of Prince William Sound; the terminus of the Copper River and Northwestern Railway, which extends 197 miles to the Kennecott copper mines in Chitina Valley. From Chitina, 130 miles from Cordova, a wagon road extends to Fairbanks, a distance of 317 miles. This road is traversed by autos in summer and sleighs in winter. Cordova is the center of an extensive fishing industry; population, including Eyak, 1,309 (1920 census). The town is well supplied with modern improvements, hotels, streets, banks, water and electric light systems, etc., and is the headquarters for supplies for Latouche, Ellamar, Chitina, McCarthy, Chisana, Kennecott, and Strelna. Also the Katalla and Yakataga oil districts, Bering River coal fields, and Nizina, Kotsina, Nabesna, and Shushanna mining districts. Cordova claims the finest harbor from a naval standpoint in Alaska.
There are nine salmon canneries and two clam plants and one crab canning plant in operation. Mining machinery of all kinds is manufactured. It is the headquarters of the Chugach Forest Reserve. The thermometer has rarely been known to reach as low as zero.